PhD in Olympic Tourism and Event Impacts

I’m delighted to be starting a PhD in Olympic Tourism and Event Impacts shortly at Anglia Ruskin University.

I will be updating this blog with updates, insights from my research and the odd reflection throughout my PhD. You can also follow my Twitter page here.

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The Impact of the World Police and Fire Games on Tourism

This week is the start of the World Police & Fire Games (1-10 August 2013) set to be held right across Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland is only the 3rd European host in the Games history, and the event last took place in New York (2011). The World Police & Fire Games has been hosted a grand total of six times in the U.S.A – firstly in San Jose, California (1985), four times in Canada, twice previously in Europe – Stockholm and Barcelona, as well as in Australia – Melbourne and Adelaide respectively. As a federation the World Police & Fire Games are a non-profit organisation who inspired the formation of the event, which is “open to active and retired law enforcement and fire service personnel worldwide”.

It is anticipated that the Games will comprise of 56 sports events delivered throughout a total of 41 sporting venues. Venues will include the Mary Peters Track, which had recently undergone a major overhaul, in addition to the £38 million Bangor Aurora Aquatics and Leisure Centre, featuring Northern Ireland’s very first 50 metre sized swimming pool, and other sporting complexes such as the Bangor Sportsplex. Originally The Games were expected to reach a target of over 10,000 participating athletes; however the final figure is more likely to be closer to 7,000. The opening ceremony will be held in the Capital city at The King’s Hall – a central exhibition hub with a capacity of just short of 8,000 members.

Tourism and culture has figured prominently in driving a municipal network for attracting and capturing a dynamic international audience to the event. The Northern Ireland Tourist Board have continued to underline the importance of how the likes of tourism providers and visitor attractions can showcase and attempt to leverage the potential gains from additional tourists, which during this period could provide a significant boost to their seasonality strains and visitation to areas of natural beauty. Although statistics in 2012 show that Northern Ireland tourism numbers have remained virtually unchanged, with tourist expenditure rising gradually. The cultural programme for the Games consists of an eclectic and vibrant mix of music, art and history. There will be live music and entertainment from the likes of Faithless, Happy Mondays, The Charlatans and Patrick Kielty at Falls Park. Exhibitions that embrace the history of policing, Irish landscape paintings, observatory and heritage tours. We will see as times goes on the true value of the Games in relation to visitor numbers, generating economic worth, enriching the cultural legacy and whether there continues to be a consistent flow of tourists to integral local and regional hot spots.

Selling Stadium Naming Rights – Future of Sports Business Model?

Undoubtedly there has been unprecedented proliferation in sports clubs opting to sell their stadium or venue naming rights to sponsors. It is becoming increasingly more frequent to occur across the United Kingdom with sponsors and teams looking to exploit the commercial opportunities, in addition to providing a significant boost to their fortunes and financial vulnerabilities. These exclusive deals can propel and be instrumental in raising the sponsors brand profile from relative obscurity to commercial giants. Are we therefore transcending into the workings of a new sports business model? To what extent do these exclusive contracts impact upon the clubs health and prosperity? We have now reached the stage where it is increasingly more important for clubs to think outside of the box and pursue unconventional options when considering selling their naming rights.

Indicative of this era is the use of brand names in harnessing associative ties with global sports teams. There is a recognition that stadium names should be treated as a commodity worthy of selling. It is commonplace to find these names are traded and even resold to respective bidders, For instance, in 2009 Wigan Athletic Football Club’s Chairman Dave Whelan decided not to renew the naming rights deal with JJB Sports. This resulted in a stadium name change from the JJB Stadium to the DW Stadium. There are a remarkably small number of clubs who fail to acknowledge and grasp the concept that stadium names can be restored or reinstated to their original form. In 2011, Newcastle United Football Club’s owner Mike Ashley’s renamed their stadium the Sports Direct Arena. Later in 2012 their commercial sponsor Wonga purchased the naming rights for the stadium and decided to revert back to their previous name – St James’ Park.

Agreeing to commit to these exclusive and lucrative pacts can present a range of prospective benefits and challenges. It could well provide mutual benefits for both the club and the sponsors, in terms of enabling them to realign and achieve commercial objectives, fostering relationships, and building long term synergy between the two parties. Investment from a naming rights deal could act as a valued injection to the club and resolve threats of financial uncertainty. Alongside this other stadium resource developments such as corporate hospitality, events and banqueting may provide an income stream between games and during the close season. In 2011 an insurance based company MetLife were able to secure the naming rights of the New York Giants and New York Jets home ground (known as the New Meadowlands Stadium before it was changed to the MetLife Stadium). They signed a 25 year naming rights deal thought to be in the region of around $15-20 million a year. More recent cases in the cricketing arena include a five year deal between Kia and Surrey County Cricket Club worth approximately £3.5m, to change the name of the ground from The Oval to the The Kia Oval. Hampshire County Cricket Club agreed to the conditions of a six year sponsorship deal (approximately £2m) with Ageas, an insurance company. The ground was rebranded as the Ageas Bowl (formerly the Rose Bowl). Likewise this year saw a deal struck between Lancashire (Old Trafford cricket ground) and Emirates. The ten year contract worth up to approximately £10 million will mean that the ground will now be known as Emirates Old Trafford.

The notion of selling naming rights to a stadium can exacerbate challenges and cause conflict between the club and the sponsor. The club may become far too over dependent on this income, and consequently lose track of alternative sources of income generation. This relationship with the sponsor may also spark controversy and be detrimental for the iconic image and identity of the club or organisation. In February 2013 Florida Atlantic University publicly announced that a naming rights deal ($6 million over the next 12 years) for their stadium (now the GEO Group Stadium) had been accepted with the GEO Group – a private prison corporation. This was met with a wave of mass protests on and off campus after it was alleged the conditions and treatment inside some of their facilities were unsanitary and careless. Conversely, the sponsor may not necessarily experience a return on investment. This could be illustrated by poor performances on the playing field by the team in question. Consequently their share price might lose its core value and the club may slump into decline. The sale of naming rights to prestigious brands is ingrained into the culture of the sports business model. Will this burgeoning worldwide trend continue to influence and shape post-modern valuations of the sports business landscape? Have we harvested an enigmatic symbol that is gradually re-defining the unstable nature of the sports business market?

To view the original article please click here.

Tracing the 21st Century Realities and Tragedies of the 1991 World Student Games

The impending demolition of the Don Valley Stadium is an unfortunate and untimely loss to the city of Sheffield. Remarkably the Don Valley Stadium has been operating at a significant loss (running costs spiralling to an estimated £700,000) and regrettably the city council, forced to make considerable spending cuts opted to vote in favour of the stadium closure. This multi-purpose, world class facility (principally the second largest athletics stadium in the UK) was originally built to stage the athletics events at the 1991 World Student Games in Sheffield. Ever since it has demonstrated its versatility by hosting live music events (U2, Red Hot Chili Peppers etc) and becoming the adopted home of the Sheffield Eagles (RFL).

The reputation of the 1991 World Student Games to this day remains tarnished by the financial misdemeanour’s of the organisers and the resulting incomprehensible debt repayments (Sheffield Council continue to repay £25m until 2024). As part of the bidding process other prominent venues were created for the World Student Games including Ponds Forge, the Motorpoint Arena (originally named the Sheffield Arena) and a smart renovation of The Lyceum Theatre. Moreover a reignited sporting culture emerged as well as ongoing investment in lottery funded initiatives such as the English Institute of Sport. As one state of the art facility slowly slips away its paves the pathway for the re-birth of another, inherently more diminutive or compact stadia. The council are undertaking plans to restore the Woodburn Road Stadium which has been unoccupied for around 18 months. This decision to close the stadium has been widely criticised by Olympic heptathlon champion Jessica Ennis who currently trains at Don Valley. On her official Twitter page, she remarked:

Don Valley Stadium

Academic Links to Tourism, Events, Sports, Leisure and Hospitality Organisations, Associations and Publishers

In this revised edition I am going to share with you some of the academic links to tourism, events, sports, leisure and hospitality pages that I have collated over the years. This includes social media links (Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn) that correspond directly to the vast collection of organisations, associations/networks and publishers (including journals, books etc). In its rawest form this valuable flagship directory could be used as a starter for those new to the area and who simply want to tap into the plethora of relevant resources available to them. It is primarily for academics, practitioners, researchers and students in the fields of tourism, events, sports management, leisure, hospitality, geography and sustainability. This is my contribution.

Annals of Leisure Research – Annals of Leisure Research is an academic journal published by Taylor & Francis. Twitter.

Association for Events Management Education (AEME) – Providing information about and links to resources relating to events management education, best practice and research. Twitter.

Association for Tourism and Leisure Education – The Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS) was established in 1991 to develop transnational educational initiatives in tourism and leisure. Facebook.

Australian and New Zealand Association for Leisure Studies – The Australian and New Zealand Association for Leisure Studies (ANZALS) is the major disciplinary association in Australasia for promoting the further development of research, teaching and scholarship in the study of leisure. Twitter.

British Society of Sports History – The British Society of Sports History (BSSH) purpose is to promote the study of the history of sport, activities include encouraging research within and beyond academic settings, collaborating with the museum and heritage sector and promoting the study of the history of sport in higher and further education. Twitter – British SocietyTwitter – BSSH South of EnglandTwitter – BSSH Scotland.

Business & Society – Business & Society is an academic journal published by Sage. Twitter.

Channel View Publications – Publishes textbooks and research monographs in the field of tourism studies. Twitter.

CITY: Analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action. Twitter.

Crit Geog Forum – This list provides a forum for the discussion of critical and radical perspectives in geography. Discussions focus on the organisational and disciplinary framework of geographical research and teaching and on critical interpretations of geographical issues. Twitter.

Culture @ the Olympics – Culture @ the Olympics is a space where academics and practitioners involved with the Olympic movement can publish brief commentaries, position pieces, original papers, presentations, working papers, and previously published papers, which may no longer have a visibility in their original form. Twitter.

Dark Tourism and Place Identity – An information page about the book Dark Tourism and Place Identity: Managing and interpreting dark places, published by Routledge in 2016. Facebook.

Discourses of Olympism – Discourses of Olympism: From the Sorbonne 1894 to London 2012 is a book published by Palgrave in 2012. Twitter.

Emerald Tourism and Hospitality – Latest tourism and hospitality research from an international publisher of books and journals. Twitter.

Environmental Education Research – Environmental Education Research is an international refereed journal which publishes papers and reports on all aspects of environmental education. Twitter.

European Sport Management Quarterly – European Sport Management Quarterly (ESMQ) is the official journal of the European Association for Sport Management. Twitter.

European Tourism Futures Institute – The European Tourism Futures Institute (ETFI) is painting pictures about the future of tourism by compiling future scenarios in close collaboration with key representatives from the industry, governmental organisations and researchers and experts from various fields. Twitter.

Events Management: An Introduction – The first edition of Events Management: An Introduction was published by Routledge in February 2012. The second edition will be published in 2017. This introductory textbook is the first to fully explore the multi-disciplinary nature of events management and to provide all the practical skills and professional knowledge students need to succeed in the events industry. Twitter.

Global Sustainability Journal – Global Sustainability is dedicated to supporting the rapidly expanding area of global sustainability research. Twitter.

International Journal of the History of Sport – The International Journal of the History of Sport is an academic journal and publication of the International Society for the History of Physical Education and Sport. Twitter.

International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics – The International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics publishes articles that address all aspects of sport policy and politics irrespective of academic discipline. Twitter.

International Journal of Urban and Regional Research – The critical edge of research on cities and regions. Twitter.

International Tourism Studies Association – The International Tourism Studies Association (ITSA) is a global scholar’s organisation bridging the gap between tourism research and practice in developing and developed countries. LinkedIn.

Journal of Destination Marketing & Management – The Journal of Destination Marketing & Management (JDMM) is an academic journal published by Elsevier. Twitter.

Journal of Marketing Management – Official journal of the Academy of Marketing, an international peer-reviewed journal publishing original and thought-provoking research. Twitter.

Journal of Sport History – The Journal of Sport History is the official publication of the North American Society for Sport History. Twitter.

Journal of Sport Management – The Journal of Sport Management is the official publication of the North American Society for Sport Management. Twitter.

Journal of Sustainability Education – JSE serves as a forum for fostering the integration of economic, ecological and social-cultural dimensions of sustainability within educational contexts. Twitter.

Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change – The Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change provides a critical view on the relationships and tensions between tourism and culture. Twitter.

Journal of Tourism Research and Hospitality – Published by SciTechnol. Twitter.

Journal of Urban Affairs – Focusing on urban research and policy, JUA offers a multidisciplinary perspective on issues relevant to scholars and practitioners. Twitter.

Leisure Sciences – An interdisciplinary journal that presents scientific inquiries into the study of leisure, recreation, parks, travel, and tourism from a social science perspective. Twitter.

Leisure Studies – Leisure Studies is an academic journal published by Taylor & Francis. Twitter.

Leisure Studies Association – The Leisure Studies Association provides a unique multi-disciplinary meeting and communication forum open to researchers, practitioners and students in all areas of leisure studies around the world. Twitter. LinkedIn.

Managing Sport and Leisure – A refereed journal that publishes high quality research articles to inform and stimulate discussions relevant to sport and leisure management globally. Twitter.

Marketing for Tourism and Hospitality – The aim is to allow TL2008 students at the University of Central Lancashire to connect and share resources with regard to national and international issues that affect and influence the marketing of hospitality organisations and the tourism sector. Facebook.

Meliora Journal – International Journal of Student Sustainability Research. Twitter.

On Climate – Exploring scientific, policy and strategic perspectives on the impacts of and responses to climate change. Twitter.

On Sustainability – Interdisciplinary perspectives on sustainability, where environmental, cultural, economic, and social concerns intersect. Published by Common Ground Publishing. Twitter.

Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise & Health – Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise & Health (QRSEH) is an academic journal published by Taylor & Francis. Twitter.

Regional Studies Association – The Regional Studies Association supports and connects research and policy making engaged in the analysis of regions and sub national issues. Twitter.

Routledge Geography, Planning and Urban Studies – Routledge Geography, Planning & Urban Studies is a global publisher of academic books, journals and online resources in the humanities and social sciences. Twitter.

Routledge Sustainability – Routledge Environment & Sustainability is a global publisher of academic books, journals and online resources in the field of environment and sustainability. Twitter.

Sage Management – Publishing Management and Business books and journals, as well as general news items of interest. Twitter.

Sage Theory, Culture and Society – Theory, Culture and Society is a major international journal with high impact in the areas of sociology, cultural theory and social theory. Twitter.

Slum Tourism Network – slumtourism.net is aimed at bringing together and creating an international network of academics and practitioners working on tourism in deprived urban and rural areas. Twitter.

Soccernomics – Soccernomics is a book first published by HarperSport in May 2012, the blog and the consultancy. Twitter.

Sport&EU – Founded in 2005, the Association for the Study of Sport and the European Union (Sport&EU) is the first pan-European academic network for the study of sport and the European Union. Twitter.

Sport & Society – Exploring the cultural, political and economic relationships of sport to society. Published by Common Ground Publishing. Twitter.

Sport, Business and Management – Sport, Business and Management is an academic journal published by Emerald. Twitter.

Sport Heritage Review – Discussion and dissemination of sport heritage topics, issues, and research. Twitter.

Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand – The Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand (SMAANZ) was founded in November 1995. The principal aim of SMAANZ is to encourage scholarly inquiry into sport management related research and to provide the opportunity to present results from this research. Twitter.

Sport Management Review – Sport Management Review is an academic journal published by Elsevier. Twitter.

Sustainability MDPI – Sustainability is an international cross-displinary scholarly and open access journal. Twitter.

Sustainability: The Journal of Record – A journal committed to providing legitimate information and resources to foster collaboration in the quest for a sustainable way of life. Twitter.

Taylor & Francis Sport, Leisure and Tourism Studies – Latest news from Taylor & Francis Sport, Leisure and Tourism Studies books and journals. Twitter.

The Academy of Leisure Sciences – The Academy of Leisure Sciences was founded in 1980 with its central purpose as the intellectual advancement of leisure sciences. Twitter.

The Institute of Place Management – Formed in 2006, the Institute of Place Management is the international professional body that supports people committed to developing, managing and making places better. Twitter.

The Olympics: The Basics – A resource to accompany the book The Olympics: The Basics published by Routledge in January 2012. Twitter.

The Tourism Society – The Tourism Society is the professional membership body for people working in all sectors of the visitor economy. Twitter.

Tomorrow’s Tourism – 2050: Tomorrow’s Tourism was published by Channel View Publications in June 2012. This textbook paints a picture of 2050 as scenarios helps leaders understand possible change, how change will occur and the consequences, threats and opportunities of the future of tourism. Twitter.

Tourism and Events: Society, Culture and the Visitor Experience – The aim is to allow TL3140 students at the University of Central Lancashire to connect and share resources with regard to the social scientific study of tourism, events, and leisure experiences with the cultural condition of society. Facebook.

Tourism and Leisure Studies – Exploring the social, economic, cultural and organisational aspects of tourism and leisure. Published by Common Ground Publishing. Twitter.

Tourism and National Identities: An International Perspective – An information page about the book Tourism and National Identities: An International Perspective, published by Routledge in March 2011. Facebook.

Tourism and Public Policy – The forthcoming edition of Tourism and Public Policy will be published by Routledge in 2017. Twitter.

Tourism Futures – All about the many futures of travel, tourism, leisure and recreation. Tourism Futures is the international web-portal for tourism and leisure research. Twitter.

Tourism Geographies – Tourism Geographies – An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment is an academic journal published by Taylor & Francis. Twitter.

Tourism Management Institute – The Tourism Management Institute (TMI) is the professional organisation for anyone working in tourism destination management. Twitter.

Travel and Tourism Research Association – Founded in 1970, the Travel and Tourism Research Association (ttra) is a non-profit association whose purpose is to enhance the quality, value, effectiveness and use of research in travel marketing, planning and development. Twitter.

UK Sport Development Research Network – The UK Sport Development Research Network (UKSDN) is a professional network whose vision is to create an environment in the UK where sport policy and practices are influenced and informed by innovative, research-informed collaborations between academics and practitioners. Twitter.

Urban Geography – Publishing original academic papers on urban issues by geographers and other social scientists since 1980. Twitter.

Urban Studies – Publishing ground-breaking contributions across the full range of social science disciplines. Twitter.

World Regional Geography – The second edition of World Regional Geography: Human Mobilities, Tourism Destinations, Sustainable Environments was published by Kendall-Hunt in 2015. Twitter.

Future Directions of Sports Tourism – Fostering Scenario Planning Practices

The ascent of sports tourism is rooted within seeking to perpetuate and seize upon speculative events and their unprecedented tourism outputs. Sports tourism can be attractive means for bolstering place reputations and forging a demand for repeat domestic and international visitors. The future trends and directions of sport tourism have yet to be contemplated and consummately operationalised. The ability to recognise and understand future directions of sports tourism is lacking in documentation and remains relatively unadressed in the literature. This warrants an immediate comprehensive present examination with the intentions of evaluating past trends and channelling rich destination modelling, with the aim of determining and factoring triggers into the subsequent state of sports tourism. This conceptual posts objective is to contextualise the debate revolving the future (including principles) of sports tourism.

Yeoman (2012) proposed and modelled a series of scenarios-based outcomes in his latest publication “2050 – Tomorrow’s Tourism”. The purpose (remarked as its utility value) was to explore the possibilities of change in order to make sense of future happenings, therefore reducing uncertainty, risk and clarifying the extent of change. Yeoman highlighted three central themes – technology, wealth and resources; there was a global recognition that a distinctive plethora of drivers could energise or force change to the game of tourism (see Model A – Driving Forces of Change). For the next phase of this assessment I am going to extract key drivers from Yeoman’s Chapter 8 – “New Zealand 2050: The Future of Professional Rugby and Sporting Events” and apply a envisaged discussion to the future framework of sports tourism. This chapter is deemed to be the closest scenario case, and one which possesses the most relevance to the sports tourism industry.

The future of sports tourism and hallmark sporting events (in 2050) is likely to be shaped by the continual proliferation in the technological revolution, transforming the supply and cultural formula of the sports tourism structure and experience. The availability and use of high-technology equipment to enhance the fan sporting experiences and games will possibly drive the cost of managing or hosting sports events (Yeoman, 2012: 149). Consequently emergent cities with limited technological resources, unfamiliar reputations and unproven track records of hosting *MSE’s may refrain from entering the bidding process – due to the exorbitant levels of start-up costs incurred. The desire for new experiences (Driver 3) diagnoses that the rise and pursuit of individualism has spawned an interest in a variety of sports, including individuals adopting extreme sports rather than the conventional and accepted popular national sports.

The economical power of sport (Driver 4) represents an integral sphere and facilitates an immense degree of interplay with global corporations. Yeoman illustrates the economical power of sport using the example of New Zealand hosting the Rugby World Cup in 2011. The economic importance of rugby is noted in television viewing figures. Behind the Olympic Games and the Fifa World Cup the Rugby World Cup is the third most watched sport on television (Yeoman, 2012: 138). Research undertaken by Visit Britain in 2011 estimated live sport tourism to be worth approximately £2.3 billion to the UK economy each year. The survey analysing visits to a live sporting events found that around 1.3 million tourists attended an event, which is 4% of all visits, with the total amount spent by this group reaching £1.1 billion. In 2050 sports tourists from Asian countries (China, India) could well dominate the sports tourism market. A hypothetical world tourism prospect is Asia and the Pacific may represent 49.8% of all international arrivals compared with 20.6% today (Yeoman, 2012: 32).

Yeoman acknowledges the hazards of attracting the new consumer to attend sporting events – coming in the form of the insperience economy. The insperience economy becomes increasingly pertinent as technology enables sporting matches to be presented in 3D (Yeoman, 2012: 150). Moreover Yeoman emphatically notes that this insperience orientated economy could reduce the desire and propensity to travel to sporting events. Will this insperience economy rupture and erode this motivation to attend a live sporting event, or will the live sporting event experience a re-birth and prosper alongside the mechanised tourism conditions of the future?

To discover more about major sporting events and scenario planning you can also read a previous post entitled “Predicting Olympic Tourism Flows – Utilisation of Scenario Planning“.

*Major Sporting Events

Model A – Driving Forces of Change (Adapted from Yeoman, 2012: 8).

Driving Forces of Change (Yeoman, 2012: 8)

UK Tourism and Sport Management Research Centres

I have devised a list for academics, practitioners, researchers and students who want to find out more about many of the top sport, leisure, hospitality and tourism research centres in the UK (shown in university alphabetical order). This includes links to their website and social networking sites such as Twitter and LinkedIn.

Birkbeck, University of London: Birkbeck Sport Business Centre – The Birkbeck Sport Business Centre is a dedicated research centre of Birkbeck, University of London. Birkbeck Sport Business Centre bring together international experts in sport management to deliver high quality research. Twitter.

Bournemouth University: International Centre for Tourism & Hospitality Research – International Centre for Tourism & Hospitality Research (ICTHR) is truly international in its horizons working with colleagues and for clients across all continents. Projects include impact studies, tourism planning, marketing strategies, labour analyses and explorations into the effects of events and other MICE activities.

Canterbury Christ Church University: Centre for Sport, Physical Education and Activity Research – The Centre for Sport, Physical Education & Activity Research (SPEAR) focuses on the social and health sciences of physical activity, sport, leisure and heritage. Twitter.

Cardiff Metropolitan University: Welsh Centre for Tourism Research – Established in 2001, the Welsh Centre for Tourism Research (WCTR) is one of Cardiff Metropolitan University’s recognised centres of research excellence and the only UK research centre of its kind to be rated as producing world-leading and internationally excellent research. Twitter.

Coventry University: Centre for Business in Society – The Centre for Business in Society (CBiS) is the home for specialist researchers within the business and law school. The centre aims to better understand the role of business in society and through the impact of the centre’s research ensure a better outcome for all. Twitter.

De Montfort University: The International Centre for Sports History and Culture – The International Centre for Sports History and Culture was established at De Montfort University in 1996 and is today widely acknowledged as the leading centre for the study of sport history in the world.. Twitter.

Glasgow Caledonian University: Moffat Centre for Travel and Tourism Business Development – The Moffat Centre is a highly regarded university-based centre undertaking key consultancy and contract research projects in the travel, tourism, hospitality and events sectors. Twitter.

Leeds Beckett University: International Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality – The International Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality (ICRETH) aim is to combine knowledge creation with knowledge transfer using a range of mechanisms for the latter, including continuing professional development, consultancy, short courses and specialist events. Twitter.

Loughborough University: Centre for Olympic Studies & Research – The Centre for Olympic Studies & Research (COS&R) was founded in July 2004 in order to develop the field of Olympic research. It is one of a network of Olympic research centres. The focus of the Centre is on research relating to Olympism, Olympic Games, the Olympic Movement, and Olympic sport.

Manchester Metropolitan University: The Centre for the Study of Football and its Communities – The Centre for the Study of Football and its Communities (CSFC) is home to an inter-disciplinary network of researchers from across faculties and academic disciplines. Currently there are researchers from human geography, architecture, sports management, business, history, politics & philosophy, languages, sociology and information & communications. Twitter.

Queen Margaret University: International Centre for the Study of Planned Events – The International Centre for the Study of Planned Events based at Queen Margaret University is dedicated to providing government, event professionals and sponsors with scientific evidence of the linkages between planned events and education, health, wealth, environmental sustainability and social cohesion. Twitter.

Sheffield Hallam University: Sport Industry Research Centre – The Sport Industry Research Centre (SIRC) is one of three sport-related research centres in the Faculty of Health and Wellbeing. The main focus of the centre’s work is the use of applied economic techniques to solve the specific research requirements of our clients and to generate new knowledge about the sport and leisure industries. Twitter.

University of Bedfordshire: Institute for Tourism Research – The Institute for Tourism Research (INTOUR) is one of the most widely respected institutes of its kind, with the highest RAE mark awarded to a university in 2001.

University of Birmingham: Sport Policy Centre – The Sport Policy Centre seeks to provide the bridge between first-class academic research and innovative policy-making. Twitter.

University of Brighton: Centre of Sport, Tourism and Leisure Studies – The Centre of Sport, Tourism and Leisure Studies at the University of Brighton exists to develop, focus, and stimulate internationally-leading research concerned with the emergence, practice, and provision of activities relating to sport, tourism and leisure. Formed in 2013, the centre brings researchers together from across the social sciences, humanities, and industries with related and complementary interests and expertise.

University of Central Lancashire: Institute for Dark Tourism Research – The Institute for Dark Tourism Research (iDTR), based at the University of Central Lancashire, is a world-leading academic centre for dark tourism scholarship, research and teaching. Twitter.

University of Central Lancashire: Institute of Transport and Tourism – The Institute of Transport and Tourism (ITT) is a small institute based at the University of Central Lancashire, with big ambitions to make leisure travel more sustainable.

University of Central Lancashire: International Research Institute for Sport Studies – The International Research Institute for Sport Studies (IRiSS) is a multi-disciplinary research institute, primarily based on the social sciences and cultural studies approaches to sport, which seeks to encourage the development of collaborative research projects, within UCLan, the UK and transnationally with groups of colleagues at other universities and research institutes.

University of Exeter: Centre for Sport, Leisure and Tourism Research – The Centre for Sport, Leisure and Tourism Research is helping shape governmental policies, social marketing efforts, and business management, as well as improving academic understandings of sustainable sport and tourism. LinkedIn.

University of Greenwich: Tourism Research Centre – The Tourism Research Centre is a cross-departmental network of academics, researchers and research students who have a particular interest in any aspect of tourism studies. The Tourism Research Centre is situated in a UNESCO World Heritage Site within a vibrant and continuously evolving tourism destination and makes good use of this inspiring location.

University of the Highlands and Islands: Centre for Recreation and Tourism Research – The Centre for Recreation and Tourism Research (CRTR) is an established research centre at the School of Adventure Studies, part of the University of the Highlands and Islands.

University of Kent: Centre for Tourism in Islands and Coastal Areas – The Centre for Tourism in Islands and Coastal Areas (CENTICA) is an explicitly multi-disciplinary research centre that was set up to generate policy-relevant analysis for governments, agencies, the private sector and other funders. CENTICA is unique within world research institutions as it combines a focus on the dynamic sector of tourism with a specialisation in the common challenges facing islands and coastal areas.

University of Salford: Centre for Sports Business – The Centre for Sports Business promotes research and consultancy in sports analytics, sport finance, sport law and the economics of sport. Twitter.

University of Westminster: Centre for Tourism Research – The Centre for Tourism Research distinct focus is on tourism in cities and metropolitan areas. The centre’s interests include airport management, business tourism, city image, conference and event tourism, national capital tourism, social tourism, sports tourism, tourism and city development, and tourism policy.